The most widely used network connection for personal computers is an Ethernet connection. Ethernet is a standard for computer network technologies that describes both hardware and communication protocols. The Ethernet capabilities are either integrated into the motherboard chipset or implemented via a low-cost dedicated Ethernet chip, connected through the PCI (or the newer PCI Express) bus, a LAN card price is under $11. A separate network card is required when additional interfaces are needed or some other type of network is used or if the onboard NIC fails.
|Brand & Model||Specification||Price|
UGREEN Gigabit Ethernet PCI Express PCI-E Network Controller Card 10/100/1000Mbps RJ45 Lan Adapter Converter for Desktop PC
|10/100/1000Mbps Ethernet port to any PC through a PCI slot.Fits any PCI Express x1, x2, x4, x8 or x16 socket; fully compatible with 802.1Q VLAN Tag. compliant to IEEE802.3, IEEE802.3u & IEEE802.3ab. PCI-enabled client, server or workstation, dual channel networking, maximum data transfer speeds of 1000Mbps in each direction (2000 Mbps total) does NOT support Linux or Mac OS.
One-year Hassle-free Warranty and Lifetime Friendly Customer Service.
TP-Link 10/100/1000Mbps Gigabit PCI Network Adapter/Card, Includes Low-profile Bracket (TG-3269)
|Standards: IEEE 802.3, 802.3u, 802.3ab, 802.3x, 802.1q, 802.1p, CSMA/CD, TCP/IP, PCI Revision 2.1/2.2
Speed: 10/ 100/ 1000Mbps
Connectors: 1 x RJ45
LEDs: 1000Mbps Link/Act, 100Mbps Link/Act, 10 Link/Act, Duplex
BUS: 32-bit PCI
TP-Link Gigabit Ethernet PCI-Express Network Adapter (TG-3468)
|10/100/1000Mbps PCIe Adapter
Wake-on-LAN supporting Auto-Negotiation and Auto MDI/MDIX
Supports IEEE802.3x Flow Control for Full-duplex Mode and backpressure for Half-duplex Mode
Jumbo Frame: 4k Bytes Port: 1x 10/100/1000Mbps RJ45 Network Media
Compatible with Windows XP/Vista/7/8
Industry-leading 2-year warranty and unlimited 24/7 technical support
StarTech.com 1 Port PCI Express 10 Gigabit Ethernet Network Card (ST10000SPEX)
|Add a 10 Gbps to a client server or workstation through a PCI Express x4 (or higher) slot
1 Port PCI Express PCIe x4 10Gb NIC – 802.3an 10GBASE-T NIC
Intel PRO/1000 Pt Dual Port Server Adapter
|Compatible with x4, x8, and x16 full-height PCI Express slots
Support for most network operating systems (NOS)
Table of Content (TOC)
- What is LAN Card or NIC
- Technical Details of NIC
- Working Position at OSI Layer
- LAN Card Types
- Installing the LAN Card
The NIC contains the electronic circuitry required to communicate using a wired connection (e.g., Ethernet) or a wireless connection (e.g., WiFi). It is an expansion card that enables a computer to connect to a network; such as a home network, or the Internet using an Ethernet cable with an RJ-45 connector. ‘RJ’ stands for ‘registered jack.’
Networked computers are required protocols and agreed-upon communication languages in order to correspond with each other and for transmitting data packets on these machines. That means network interface card is very important to link the computers so data can be sent and received on them within a LAN.
Technical Details of NIC
Ethernet cable plugs into the Ethernet connection of a computer’s network interface. Small LED lights built into the connection will show that a connection is active and whether data is being transferred.
The NIC is a slot-based card that connects directly to the motherboard of the computer. The major benefit to these cards is that they handle the buffer storage, encoding and decoding of data through the seven network layers. This allows the processor to concentrate on other tasks, rather than the data being received by it. Typically, there are more advanced feature sets available on network interface cards, as they have dedicated storage and the processing to support this without affecting the CPU. Conversely, an installed NIC will take one of your motherboard expansion slots, which can be troublesome if you are running several add-on components in a small form factor computer.
Working Position at OSI Layer
A NIC provides operations up to layer 2 of the OSI model. The NIC’s interface itself is a Physical layer (layer 1) device, the physical address (also known as MAC address) of the adapter as well as the drivers to control the NIC are located at the Data Link layer’s MAC sub-layer. Likewise, each Ethernet network controller is having a unique address of 48 bits serial numbers which is known as MAC (media access control) address.
The network card’s controller is the piece of hardware that encodes and decodes the frames of data sent through the wire. In addition, while each layer of the network model is theoretically the same, each manufacturer has a different set of instructions that operate at varying efficiency levels. Therefore, buying a NIC powered by a ubiquitous controller vendor can improve your networking experience.
Whether the network interface card (NIC) is part of your PC’s motherboard circuitry or attached as an expansion card, you can inspect its status by using the Device Manager in Windows.
LAN Card Types
Categorized by network interface
- RJ-45 interface network card
- BNC interface network card
- AUI interface network card
- FDDI interface network card
- ATM interface network card
The common interfaces are Ethernet RJ-45 interface, thin coaxial cable BNC interface and thick coaxial AUI interface, FDDI interface, ATM interface and so on. And in order to apply to a wider range of applications, some cards providing two or more types of interface, some of them will also provide RJ-45, BNC interface or AUI interface simultaneously.
Categorized by bus interface
- ISA bus network card
- PCI bus network card
- PCI-X bus network card
- PCMCIA bus network card
- USB bus network interface card
ISA card and PCI card is the most common, but the PCI card tends to mainstream status. ISA network card bandwidth is generally 10Mbps, PCI bus network card bandwidth from 10Mbps to 1000Mbps.
Categorized by bandwidth
- 10Mbps network interface card
- 100Mbps network interface card
- 10Mbps/100Mbps network interface card
- 1000Mbps network interface card
With the development of network technology, network bandwidth is also increasing, but different bandwidth applied to different application, currently the main network card is 10Mbps network card, 100Mbps Ethernet card 10Mbps / 100Mbps adaptive network card, 1000Mbps Gigabit Ethernet card.
Categorized by application fields
- Workstation’s network interface card
- Server’s network interface card
The network interface cards mentioned above are basically workstation cards, in fact, usually they used in the general server. However, in large networks, the server usually uses a specialized network card. Relative to the workstation used by ordinary card, it has a better performance in bandwidth (usually 100Mbps, the mainstream server network card for the 64-bit Gigabit Ethernet), the number of interfaces, stability, error correction, etc. Some server NIC supports redundant backup, hot-plug and other server-specific functions.
- Power down your computer and then unplug the power cable and all the other cables that are connected to the back.
- PCI cards need to be installed onto your Computer’s motherboard. To do this, you will need to open your computer case so that you can access the insides. Lay the case on your table or workbench, remove the side panel of your computer case, you will have access to the motherboard. You will see rectangular slots on your motherboard that correspond with bays on the back of the case. When there’s nothing installed, the bays are covered by small metal protectors. You can remove one by unscrewing the single screw holding it in place and then lifting it directly out of the case. There are also usually one or two PCIe slots closest to the processor, used for graphics cards,
- Gently remove your new card from the anti-static bag, gripping it by the sides. Plug the LAN card into an empty PCI slot on the motherboard. Simply push the card straight into the slot until its seated and the face plate is up against the hole at the back of the PC. Using the screw that was unscrewed earlier when removing the metal plate, screw the networking card into place in the case.
- Turn the computer on and install the drivers for the Network card. Windows will detect that you have installed a new hardware. In most cases it will install the drivers automatically. If not, you need to install the drivers manually from the CD supplied with the network card.
- Once the Network card has been successfully installed, set the configuration values for the network card in the software. , it is recommended you contact the network administrator or the Internet provider for the values.
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